Wheeler County was created in on November 5, 1912 from Montgomery County, and the 298 square mile county is named after Confederate Gen. Joseph Wheeler. Alamo, the county seat, establihed its first Post Office in 1890, and was incorporated in 1909. Alamo, named to honor the Alamo mission in Texas, has a population of 2,797 (2010), while Wheeler Co. has a 2010 population of 7,421.
The first location of Wheeler County's court seesion's is unknown. The first official courthouse was built in 1914. It burned down in 1916 and was replaced a year later by the current courthouse, which was completely restored in 1961. The only other incorporated town in the county is Glenwood, incorporated in 1908.